Development Strategy:


  • Great Leap Forward (GLF):
    • Communist China, formed in 1949, had the Communist Party in control. They initiated the Great Leap Forward in 1958 to rapidly industrialize, encouraging people to start industries at home. Village Communes were established, covering most of the farming population. However, this faced challenges like severe drought and a border dispute with Soviet Russia.
  • Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (1966-76):
    • In 1966, Mao Tse Tung started a cultural revolution to eliminate opposition to communism. This led to difficulties for people, and many were harmed. China officially condemned this revolution later.
  • Reforms in 1978:
    • From 1978, China introduced reforms, starting with agriculture, foreign trade, and investments. Commune lands were divided, given to households for cultivation, but without ownership rights. Reforms expanded to the industrial sector, allowing private firms and competition between private and state-owned enterprises. Dual pricing and Special Economic Zones (SEZ) were introduced to attract foreign investment.


  • Mixed Economy:
    • Pakistan follows a mixed economy with both public and private sectors.
  • Regulated Policies (1950s-60s):
    • In the late 1950s and 1960s, Pakistan implemented a regulated policy framework for import substitution industrialization, combining tariff protection for manufacturing and direct import controls.
  • Green Revolution (Agriculture Mechanization):
    • The Green Revolution in the late 1950s mechanized agriculture, significantly increasing foodgrain production and transforming the agrarian structure.
  • Nationalization (1970s):
    • In the 1970s, there was nationalization of capital goods industries.
  • Structural Reforms (1988):
    • In 1988, structural reforms emphasized denationalization and support for the private sector.
  • Financial Support:
    • Pakistan received financial aid from western nations and remittances from emigrants to the Middle East, boosting economic growth.


11.3.1 Demographic Parameters

Population Comparison:

(a) Pakistan has the lowest population, while China has the largest.

(b) China has the largest surface area (about three times that of India), but its population density is the lowest.

(c) Pakistan has the highest population growth, followed by India and China. China’s introduction of the one-child norm in the late 1970s is a significant reason for its low population growth. This measure also led to a decline in the sex ratio, indicating fewer females per 1000 males.

(d) The sex ratio is low and biased against females in all three countries, reflecting a strong preference for sons.

(e) China has a low fertility rate, while Pakistan has a very high fertility rate.

(f) Urbanization is high in China but low in both India and Pakistan. Urbanization is the percentage of the total population living in urban areas.

CountryEstimatedpopulation(millions)(2014)Surface Area (Thousand Sq. km)Density (Per sq. Km)SexRatioatbirthFertilityRate(birthsperwomen)Urban Population (% of total population)

Source: Human Development Report 2015

Objective Type Questions

1. Which development strategy was initiated by Communist China in 1958 to rapidly industrialize and encourage home-based industries?

A) Green Revolution

B) Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

C) Great Leap Forward

D) Structural Reforms

Answer: C) Great Leap Forward

2. What was the primary objective of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution initiated by Mao Tse Tung in China?

A) Rapid industrialization

B) Promotion of agriculture

C) Elimination of opposition to communism

D) Introduction of foreign trade reforms

Answer: C) Elimination of opposition to communism

3. When did China introduce significant reforms, including dividing commune lands and allowing private firms in agriculture and industry?

A) 1958

B) 1966

C) 1978

D) 1988

Answer: C) 1978

4. In the 1950s and 1960s, what policy framework did Pakistan implement for industrialization, combining tariff protection and direct import controls?

A) Green Revolution

B) Mixed Economy

C) Regulated Policies

D) Nationalization

Answer: C) Regulated Policies

5. What significant transformation did the Green Revolution bring to Pakistan’s agriculture in the late 1950s?

A) Nationalization

B) Mechanization

C) Structural Reforms

D) Denationalization

Answer: B) Mechanization

6. In the 1970s, what major economic shift occurred in Pakistan involving the nationalization of capital goods industries?

A) Green Revolution

B) Mixed Economy

C) Regulated Policies

D) Nationalization

Answer: D) Nationalization

7. When did Pakistan introduce structural reforms emphasizing denationalization and support for the private sector?

A) 1958

B) 1966

C) 1978

D) 1988

Answer: D) 1988

8. Which country implemented the one-child norm in the late 1970s as a significant measure to control population growth?

A) India

B) Pakistan

C) China

D) None of the above

Answer: C) China

9. Among the three countries, which one has the highest population growth rate?

A) China

B) India

C) Pakistan

D) They have similar growth rates

Answer: C) Pakistan

10. In terms of urbanization, which country has the highest percentage of its population living in urban areas?

A) China

B) India

C) Pakistan

D) They have similar urbanization rates

Answer: A) China

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