10.1.4 State of India’s Environment

Rich Natural Resources in India:

India has a lot of good natural stuff. We have good soil, many rivers, big forests, lots of minerals underground, a big part of the Indian Ocean, and mountains. Here are some points to show that:

  • The soil in the Deccan Plateau is great for growing cotton, so we have a bunch of textile industries there.
  • The Indo-Gangetic plains, which go from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal, are super fertile and have a lot of people living there.
  • Our forests give cover to many people and homes for wildlife.
  • We have a ton of iron-ore, coal, and natural gas. In fact, India has about 20% of all the iron-ore in the world.
  • We also have things like bauxite, copper, diamonds, gold, lead, manganese, and more in different parts of the country.

Dichotomy of the Threat to India’s Environment:

All the building and growing in India are putting pressure on our limited natural stuff. It’s causing problems for people’s health and happiness. There are two big problems: one is that poor people might harm the environment because they need resources, and the other is that rich people and industries might harm it because they’re growing too fast. The issues include dirty air, polluted water, soil getting washed away, trees being cut down, and animals disappearing.

Challenges to India’s Environment

Major Challenges to India’s Environment:

Land Degradation:

a. The land in India is getting damaged because of how we use it and not taking care of it.

  • b. Some reasons for this damage are cutting down trees, taking too much wood and plants, shifting farming, taking over forest lands, forest fires, too many animals grazing, not protecting the soil, using too many chemicals in farming, bad planning for water, using too much groundwater, and not treating the land well because of poverty.

Biodiversity Loss:

a. India has lots of animals, but because there are so many people and animals, we’re using up the land too fast.

b. The small amount of forest land we have is not enough. We cut down more trees than we should, and this hurts the land. Trees also help clean the air, so cutting them down adds more pollution. The Chipko and Appiko movements are examples where people tried to stop cutting down trees to save the environment.

  • c. The soil is also getting washed away, and we lose important nutrients. The government says we lose a lot of nutrients every year because of this.

Air Pollution:

a. In cities in India, the air is not clean, mainly because of vehicles. Cars and other vehicles release gases that are bad for people’s health.

b. India has lots of industries that sometimes cause pollution too. The government has found 17 types of industries that are big polluters.

  • c. Some industries, like plastic and leather, release harmful gases when they make things.

Management of Fresh Water and Solid Waste:

a. Some states in India don’t have enough water, and what’s there is often dirty, causing diseases like diarrhea.

  • b. Also, we don’t handle our garbage well. Trash not only makes people sick but also looks bad. Just dumping garbage in landfills is not a good solution.

Objective Type Questions

1. What is one significant feature of the Deccan Plateau mentioned in the passage?

A) Abundance of natural gas

B) Fertility for cotton cultivation

C) Presence of gold mines

D) Dense forest cover

Answer: B) Fertility for cotton cultivation

2. What is the primary concern highlighted in the “Dichotomy of the Threat to India’s Environment”?

A) Excessive forest cover

B) Depletion of mineral resources

C) Pressure on limited natural resources

D) Overpopulation of wildlife

Answer: C) Pressure on limited natural resources

3. What are some challenges mentioned under “Land Degradation”?

A) Excessive rainfall and floods

B) Overprotecting the soil

C) Cutting down trees and using too many chemicals in farming

D) Adequate planning for water usage

Answer: C) Cutting down trees and using too many chemicals in farming

4. What does the Chipko and Appiko movements aim to address?

A) Soil erosion

B) Air pollution

C) Deforestation

D) Land degradation due to shifting farming

Answer: C) Deforestation

5. What is a consequence of cutting down trees, as mentioned in the passage?

A) Increased soil fertility

B) Reduction in air pollution

C) Loss of important nutrients and added pollution

D) Growth of wildlife habitat

Answer: C) Loss of important nutrients and added pollution

6. What is a major cause of air pollution in cities in India, according to the passage?

A) Deforestation

B) Industrial development

C) Lack of vehicles

D) Decreased use of harmful gases

Answer: B) Industrial development

7. What is emphasized as an issue in the “Management of Fresh Water and Solid Waste”?

A) Abundance of clean water in all states

B) Lack of garbage in landfills

C) Insufficient and contaminated water in some states

D) Proper handling of solid waste

Answer: C) Insufficient and contaminated water in some states

8. What is the concern related to the loss of biodiversity in India?

A) Overpopulation of animals

B) Excessive forest cover

C) Rapid urbanization

D) Unavailability of forest land

Answer: C) Rapid urbanization

9. Which industries are mentioned as contributors to air pollution in the passage?

A) Agriculture and textile

B) Plastic and leather

C) Mining and construction

D) Energy and healthcare

Answer: B) Plastic and leather

10. What is highlighted as a problem with the current approach to handling garbage in India?

A) Efficient use of landfills

B) Proper waste management

C) Inadequate water supply

D) Dumping garbage without a suitable solution

Answer: D) Dumping garbage without a suitable solution

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