9.4.2 Consumption Pattern of Commercial Energy

Let’s break down some key points about energy in India:

  • Common Measurement: In India, we use a common unit called ‘million tonne of oil equivalent’ (MTOE) to measure different sources of energy.
  • Commercial Energy: Right now, 65% of all the energy we use in India comes from commercial sources.
  • Energy Mix: When we look at where our energy comes from, coal is the biggest contributor at 55%, followed by oil at 31%, natural gas at 11%, and hydro energy at 3%.
  • Non-commercial Energy: More than 30% of our energy comes from non-commercial sources.
  • Import Dependence: We rely on imports for crude oil and petroleum products, and this dependence might increase to over 100% very soon.

Sectoral share of energy consumption in India

Breaking down energy usage in simpler terms:

  • Industry Leading: The industrial sector uses the most energy, accounting for 42% of all commercial energy. This signals a significant growth in industries, especially in large-scale factory production.
  • Transportation Changes: Energy consumption in transportation has decreased; it’s now at 22%. This suggests changes or improvements in how we move people and goods.

Agriculture Lagging: The agricultural sector uses only 9% of the total commercial energy. This low percentage indicates that agriculture is not highly mechanized, leading to lower productivity levels.

9.4.3 Power/Electricity

Simplified Explanation:

  • Importance of Power: Power, commonly known as electricity, is a crucial aspect of modern civilization, representing progress.
  • Sources of Electricity:
    • Water generates hydroelectricity.
    • Oil, gas, and coal produce thermal electricity.
    • Radioactive elements like uranium and plutonium contribute to atomic or nuclear power.
  • Electricity Consumption Pattern:
    • Electricity is a derived form, created from primary energy sources like coal, oil, and natural gas.
    • In India (2013-14), about 72.10% of power came from thermal sources, while hydro, wind, and nuclear sources contributed 28% and 2.4% respectively.
    • India encourages hydel (hydropower) and wind energy in its energy policy.
    • Atomic energy plays a role in power generation, currently contributing 2.4% to total primary energy consumption.

Emerging Challenges in the Power Sector

In our country, there’s a problem with energy supply – we don’t have enough of the fuels we use, like coal. The coal we do have is not very good in terms of quality and quantity. This shortage is affecting our power supply, especially electricity.

Here are some challenges the power sector in India is dealing with:

  • Not Enough Power Plants: We don’t have sufficient power plants to keep up with the country’s growth. To match the demand, we should add 1,00,000 MW of new capacity each year, but currently, we can only add about 20,000 MW annually.
  • Power Plants Not Used Properly: Even the power plants we have are not used well; they could do more.
  • State Electricity Boards (SEBs) Facing Losses: The organizations that distribute electricity are losing a lot of money (over ?500 billion) due to various reasons like power theft, wrong pricing, and providing electricity to farmers at low rates.
  • Private Companies’ Impact Uncertain: Private companies that generate power have not yet proven how much they can help the economy.
  • Public Unrest: People are not happy because electricity prices are high, and there are often long power cuts in different parts of the country.
  • Not Enough Raw Materials: The materials needed to run power plants, especially coal, are not always available.
  • Can’t Stop Power Theft: Power is being stolen in different areas, and we haven’t been able to control this. On average, the country loses 23% of its power this way.
  • Not Efficient Enough: The efficiency of power plants, especially in eastern and north-eastern regions, is not great. In the southern region, it’s better.
  • Some Villages Still Waiting for Electricity: About 15% of villages still don’t have electricity.
  • We Need to Save Energy: Conserving energy is crucial. It reduces our reliance on other countries, helps the environment, and saves money. However, as our country develops, we’re using more energy, and this is a big challenge.

Objective Type Questions

1.What unit is commonly used in India to measure different sources of energy?
A) KWh
B) MTOE (Million Tonne of Oil Equivalent)
Answer: B) MTOE (Million Tonne of Oil Equivalent)

  1. What percentage of energy in India comes from commercial sources?
    A) 30%
    B) 55%
    C) 65%
    D) 80%
    Answer: C) 65%
  2. Which sector consumes the most energy in India, according to the sectoral share of energy consumption?
    A) Agriculture
    B) Transportation
    C) Industrial
    D) Residential
    Answer: C) Industrial
  3. What is the predominant source of energy in India’s energy mix?
    A) Hydro energy
    B) Natural gas
    C) Coal
    D) Oil
    Answer: C) Coal
  4. What is the major challenge faced by the power sector in India regarding fuels like coal?
    A) Excess availability
    B) High quality and quantity
    C) Shortage in quality and quantity
    D) Adequate supply
    Answer: C) Shortage in quality and quantity
  5. Why are State Electricity Boards (SEBs) facing losses in India’s power sector?
    A) High electricity prices
    B) Power theft
    C) Efficient use of power plants
    D) Private companies’ impact
    Answer: B) Power theft
  6. What is the suggested annual capacity addition needed to meet the growing demand for power in India?
    A) 5,000 MW
    B) 20,000 MW
    C) 50,000 MW
    D) 100,000 MW
    Answer: D) 100,000 MW
  7. Why are people unhappy with the electricity situation in different parts of the country?
    A) Low electricity prices
    B) Short power cuts
    C) Efficient power plants
    D) Private companies’ contributions
    Answer: B) Short power cuts
  8. What percentage of power is estimated to be lost due to power theft in India?
    A) 10%
    B) 15%
    C) 20%
    D) 23%
    Answer: D) 23%
  9. Why is conserving energy considered crucial in India?
    A) It increases reliance on other countries
    B) It harms the environment
    C) It saves money and helps the environment
    D) It has no impact on the economy
    Answer: C) It saves money and helps the environment

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