9.4.5 Measures to Cope up with Challenges Facing the Power Sector

Here are some things the power sector should do:

  • Make Power Plants More Efficient: The power plants need to be used better so that they can produce more electricity.
  • Stop Losing Power During Transmission: When electricity is sent from one place to another, we lose some along the way. We need to use the right materials, manage how much electricity we use, measure how much we use, let private companies handle the distribution, and do regular checks to make sure we’re not losing too much. Some steps have already been taken in this direction.
  • Get Private Companies Involved: The government said in 1991 that private companies could help generate and distribute power. We need to fix any problems that come up and make sure private companies can help.
  • Use Better Lights: We should use a kind of light called Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) because they use less power than regular bulbs. They can save up to 80% of the electricity.
  • Use More Hydel and Wind Energy: The government is encouraging the use of energy from moving water and wind.
  • Create a National Power Grid: By 2012, we want to have a big system to move electricity around the country so that everyone gets what they need.
  • Make More Biogas: We are making more biogas from things like leftover food. In a sunny country like India, we should focus on using energy from the sun.

Use More Atomic Energy: Even though it’s not used a lot right now, atomic energy can be good for the environment and save money in the long run.


  • What Health Means: Health is about how a whole country is growing and getting better. Public health looks at how everyone in the country is doing health-wise.
  • Building Health Infrastructure: Making sure there are enough hospitals, doctors, nurses, and medical equipment is crucial for a country’s growth. This health setup should be available to everyone.
  • Checking Health Status: We can understand how healthy a country is by looking at things like how many babies and mothers are dying, how often people get sick, how long they are expected to live, and how well they eat. The number of diseases in an area is also a way to measure health. Morbidity, or how many people are sick, is one way to see this. It depends on things like clean water and sanitation.
  • Helping with Health Programs: The Central Council of Health and Family Welfare collects information and supports state governments in running important health programs in the country.
  • Three Levels of Health Care:
    • Primary Health Care: This is the first level and includes teaching people about health issues, making sure they have good food, clean water, basic sanitation, and taking care of mothers and children. Primary Health Centres (PHCs) and Community Health Centres (CHCs) in villages and small towns are part of this.
    • Secondary Health Care: This is the second level and includes hospitals in district headquarters and big towns that offer better health services like surgery and diagnostics.
    • Tertiary Health Care: This is the third level and involves advanced medical care for complicated health problems. This level also includes institutes that teach medical students, do research, and offer specialized medical care.

9.5.1 State of Health Infrastructure in India

(Source: Economic Survey 2015-16 and HDR 2015)

  • Health Facilities in India:
    • Sub Centres and Community Health Centres: There are 176,820 of these.
    • Ayush Hospitals: There are 27,339 of these.
    • Nursing Personnel: We have 18.94 lakh nursing staff.
    • Allopathic Doctors: There are 9.2 lakh doctors.
    • Hospital Beds: For every 10,000 people, there are 9 hospital beds.
    • Physicians: For every 10,000 people, there are 7 physicians.

2. Effects of Good Health Infrastructure.

Positive Outcomes of Good Health System:

  • Smallpox Eradication: Smallpox has been completely wiped out.
  • Death Rate: In 2011, the death rate was 7.1 per thousand population.
  • Infant Mortality Rate: In 2013, the rate was 41.4 per thousand live births (counting deaths of infants up to 1 year old).
  • Life Expectancy: By 2014, life expectancy had risen to 68.0 years.
  • Controlled Diseases: Diseases like cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, polio, and leprosy are under control.
  • Child Mortality Rate: By 2013, child mortality had fallen to 49 per thousand (counting deaths of children up to 5 years old).

Private Sector’s Role:

  • Recent Dominance: Lately, private companies have become crucial in medical education, training, technology, pharmaceuticals, hospital construction, and medical services.

Medical Tourism:

  • Tourism Growth: Since the 1990s, liberalization measures led to the establishment of advanced hospitals, attracting medical tourists.
  • Foreign Attraction: Medical tourists choose India for cost-effective, advanced healthcare services provided by skilled professionals. In 2004-2005, 150,000 foreigners sought medical treatment in India.

Community and Non-Profit Organizations:

  • Basic Idea: These organizations aim to train and involve people in primary healthcare.
  • Examples:
    • SEWA (Ahmedabad): Focuses on building alternative healthcare services for members and providing low-cost care to nearby villages.
    • ACCORD (Nilgiris): Works to establish accessible healthcare services.
    • Kashtakari Sangathan: Trains women health workers in rural areas to provide affordable treatment for simple illnesses.

Objective Type Questions

1.What is the suggested solution for minimizing power loss during transmission?
A) Increase electricity consumption
B) Regular checks on power plants
C) Use better lights
D) Let private companies handle distribution
Answer: D) Let private companies handle distribution

  1. According to the passage, what type of light is recommended for energy efficiency?
    A) Incandescent bulbs
    B) Halogen lamps
    C) Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
    D) LED lights
    Answer: C) Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
  2. What is the government encouraging in terms of energy sources?
    A) Increased use of oil
    B) Greater reliance on coal
    C) More hydel and wind energy
    D) Higher dependence on atomic energy
    Answer: C) More hydel and wind energy
  3. What is the goal of creating a National Power Grid by 2012?
    A) Increase power prices
    B) Reduce energy consumption
    C) Efficiently move electricity across the country
    D) Encourage power theft
    Answer: C) Efficiently move electricity across the country
  4. What is the emphasis on using atomic energy in the passage?
    A) It’s cost-effective
    B) It’s environmentally friendly
    C) It’s widely used
    D) It’s a primary source of energy
    Answer: B) It’s environmentally friendly
  5. How is health described in the passage?
    A) It focuses on individual well-being
    B) It’s about the growth and improvement of the entire country
    C) It only considers physical health
    D) It depends on medical facilities alone
    Answer: B) It’s about the growth and improvement of the entire country
  6. What is the first level of health care according to the passage?
    A) Tertiary Health Care
    B) Secondary Health Care
    C) Primary Health Care
    D) Community Health Care
    Answer: C) Primary Health Care
  7. How are private companies involved in the health sector according to the passage?
    A) They provide free medical services
    B) They are not involved
    C) They contribute to medical education, training, and services
    D) They focus only on pharmaceuticals
    Answer: C) They contribute to medical education, training, and services
  8. What is a positive outcome of a good health system mentioned in the passage?
    A) Increased child mortality rate
    B) Higher death rate
    C) Control of diseases like cholera and malaria
    D) Shorter life expectancy
    Answer: C) Control of diseases like cholera and malaria
  9. Why do medical tourists choose India, according to the passage?
    A) Expensive healthcare services
    B) Limited medical facilities
    C) Cost-effective, advanced healthcare services
    D) Lack of skilled professionals
    Answer: C) Cost-effective, advanced healthcare services

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